The primary difference between Christianity and Judaism lies in their respective beliefs regarding the nature and identity of Jesus of Nazareth. Judaism rejects the divinity of Jesus, viewing him as a prophet and teacher, while Christianity holds him as the Son of God and the Messiah, whose death and resurrection is the basis of their faith.
In addition to this fundamental distinction, the two religions differ in their beliefs and practices. Christianity developed out of Judaism, and while both religions share many beliefs and customs, there are also significant differences.
Judaism is a monotheistic faith, and the core of its beliefs rests on a relationship between God and humanity, based on the covenant between God and Abraham. God is viewed as the only true deity, and the primary moral and spiritual authority in the world. The Bible, or Tanakh, is the central text of Jewish faith, and the basis of Jewish law, or Halakha. Jews observe the Sabbath and adhere to a strict kosher dietary code, and celebrate a number of holidays each year.
Christianity, on the other hand, is founded on the belief in the Trinity, or the belief in one God in three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Jesus is viewed as the incarnate Son of God, and the savior of the world. The Christian faith is based on the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, and his teachings as recorded in the New Testament.
In terms of practice, Christianity has a number of rituals and practices that differ from those of Judaism. For example, Christians observe Sunday as the Sabbath, rather than Saturday, and celebrate Easter and Christmas as the primary religious holidays. Christians also observe baptism as a rite of initiation into the faith, while Jews do not. Moreover, while Christianity is largely organized around a hierarchical structure with a centralized authority, Judaism is a more decentralized faith, organized around local synagogues and rabbinical courts.
In terms of theology, Christianity and Judaism have very different views of the afterlife. Jews believe in a form of life after death, but this is not central to their faith, while Christians believe in heaven and hell, and that Jesus’ death and resurrection guarantee eternal life in heaven for believers.
Finally, Christianity and Judaism share some beliefs and practices, but also have significant differences. While both religions are monotheistic, and share a common ancestry, their views of Jesus, their practices, and their theology all differ significantly.