The largest country in the world by land area is Russia, spanning 6,602,800 square miles. It is the ninth most populous country with a population of roughly 145 million people. Located in Eurasia, Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic, with its capital being Moscow. Russia has a great variety of climates and landscapes, ranging from deserts to frozen tundra, and from subtropical forests to ice-covered mountain ranges. Most of the country is covered by forests, which account for about one-third of the land area. The longest mountain range in the world, the Ural Mountains, are located in Russia, as well as the Volga River, which is the longest river in Europe. Russia has an incredibly diverse landscape, with the lowest elevation point being the Caspian Sea at 28 meters below sea level, and the highest point being the summit of Mount Elbrus at 5642 meters above sea level. The country is home to many different climates, ranging from humid continental to subarctic and semi-arid. Russia is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, including the Siberian tiger, brown bear, lynx, and snow leopard. The country is also home to a variety of birds, including the golden eagle, which is the national bird of Russia. Many of the country’s rivers are home to sturgeons, which are a source of caviar. Russia has a rich history, dating back to the 10th century when it was a principality known as Rus. In the 16th century, the country was divided into several independent states, which were gradually unified by the Tsars. In 1917, the Russian Revolution led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991. Today, Russia is still a major player in the world, with a strong economy and a powerful military. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and is considered a great power. It is a member of the G8 and BRICS nations, and is one of the world’s leading producers of oil and natural gas. Russia is also a major exporter of weapons and military hardware, and is one of the world’s most powerful nuclear weapons states.